MS-CITने एक कोटी विद्यार्थीसंख्येचा टप्पा ओलांडला

अवघ्या महाराष्ट्राला ‘डिजिटल महाराष्ट्र’ कसं करता येईल याचा ध्यास घेवून सुरु केलेल्या आणि राज्यशासनाने प्रमाणित केलेल्या MS-CIT या कंप्यूटर कोर्सने १ कोटी विद्यार्थीसंख्येचा टप्पा नुकताच ओलांडला. गेल्या १४ वर्षात एकूण १ कोटीहून अधिक विद्यार्थ्यांनी MS-CIT कोर्स पूर्ण करून महाराष्ट्राला देशातील अग्रगण्य संगणक साक्षर राज्य बनविण्यात मोलाचं सहकार्य केले आहे. याविषयी बोलताना MKCL प्रतिनिधींनी सांगितले की सातत्याने बदलत असणाऱ्या तंत्रज्ञानामुळे विद्यार्थी व पालकांमध्ये संगणक-साक्षरतेबरोबरच कंप्यूटरचे स्मार्ट उपयोग शिकण्याकडे कल मोठ्या प्रमाणात दिसून येतो. आधुनिक युगात मोबाईलबरोबरच कंप्यूटरलाही पर्याय नसल्याने दर वर्षी उन्हाळ्याच्या सुट्टीत साधारण पाच लाख लाख विद्यार्थी तर प्रतिवर्षी ८.५ ते ९ लाख लोक MS-CIT या आंतरराष्ट्रीय दर्जाचा अद्ययावत संगणक प्रशिक्षणास प्रवेश घेतात. आणि तो शिकविण्यासाठी ५००० हजार Hi-Tech प्रशिक्षण केंद्रांचे नेटवर्क आहे ज्यामध्ये ७५००० इंटरनेट रेडी कंप्युटर्स आहेत व २५००० अनुभवी तज्ञ आणि तत्पर प्रशिक्षक काम करत आहे. हे दृश्य एका राज्यात जगाच्या पाठीवर कोठेही दिसलेले नाही.

शाळेमध्ये ९/१०वीच्या ICT या विषयाची तयारी करण्यासाठी सुट्टीत ७ वी आणि ८वीच्या मुलांनीही MS-CITला प्रवेश घेण्याचा नवीनच ट्रेंड यावर्षी दिसत आहे.

Rotary International and MKCL collaborate for Skilling in South Asia

Rotary International, one of the largest service organization in the world, has identified eradication of illiteracy as next focus agenda after Polio eradication. Rotary India Literacy Mission drives this program in India, Nepal, Bangaldesh. Rotary has entered into collaboration with Maharashtra Knowledge Corporation Limited (MKCL) for Skill Development of underprivileged from all age groups. Over 2 lakh persons will be skilled with MKCL’s Digital Programs in South Asian countries with help from Rotary Clubs.
In a glittering function held at Kolkata, Rotary International Director Dr. Manoj Desai signed the MoU with Mrs. Veena Kamath, Sr. General Manager – MKCL, in presence of World Chairman of Rotary Foundation Ray Klinginsmith , World Rotary President K. R. Ravindran , IT Expert and Past District Governor of Rotary International Dr. Deepak Shikarpur and Neel Prabhu, International Business Development Program Coordinator – MKCL.

6 Inventions by Women that Helped Shape the World

1. The First Computer Program

Ada Lovelace wrote instructions for the first computer program in the mid-1800s.

Ada Lovelace, (also Lord Byron’s daughter), was encouraged by her mother, who was a scientist, from a very early age to pursue mathematics. Ada worked with Charles Babbage at the University of London on his plans for an “analytic engine” and is considered to have written instructions for the first computer program in the mid-1800s.


2. Computer software – COBOL

Dr. Grace Murray Hopper, who was a rear admiral in the U.S. Navy, invented the first software program and also coined the word ‘bug’.

A rear admiral in the U.S. navy and also a computer scientist, it was Dr. Grace Murray Hopper who invented COBOL, “the first user-friendly business computer software program”. And just in case you were wondering how the word “bug” came to be used to describe a glitch in the computer system, it was she who coined it after finding out that an actual moth was causing trouble in her computer.


3. Kevlar

Kevlar, a very strong fibre, used in bullet proof jackets was developed by Stephanie Klowlek.

For those who do not know what Kevlar is, it is safe to say it is the boss behind most inventions. Lightweight and highly tensile, Kevlar is a fibre which is five times stronger than steel and has more than 200 other uses. The next time your bullet proof jacket takes a bullet for you, just know that Stephanie Klowlek saved you.


4. Wireless Transmission Technology

Hedy Lamarr co-invented a system of wireless communication which was used during WWII.

Hedy Lamarr, the Austrian actress, famous for her acting and beauty (oh-those-high-cheekbones), is often forgotten for co-inventing a system of wireless communication called “spread spectrum” to fight the Nazis during World War II. The radio technology, vital at the time, was also the foundation for modern WiFi and mobile phones.



Marie Van Brittan Brown’s inventions are the basis for modern day CCTV systems.

In New York City, when Marie Van Brittan Brown observed that police were slow to respond to calls for help at times, she took matters into her own hands and devised the system for CCTV (Closed-Circuit Television) security to help people ensure their security. Her inventions are the basis for modern day CCTV systems used at home/public places.


6. Windshield Wipers

Anyone who’s ever driven in a rain or snow storm can attest to the dire importance of windshield wipers.  Inventor Mary Anderson received a patent for her car-window cleaning device in 1903.

Anderson’s invention came about during a trip to New York City when the Alabama-born inventor noticed that streetcar drivers had to open the windows of their cars when it rained in order to see. As a solution, Anderson invented a swinging arm device with a rubber blade that was operated by the driver from within the vehicle using a lever.

mary anderson

Have you ever wondered why a pen drive/hard drive has less storage space than promised?

Have you ever noticed how manufacturers and our dealers continue to do this again and again without getting sued?

They are not marketing it falsely, but smartly!

While manufacturing a pen drive/hard rive they consider:
1 MB = 1000 KB
1 GB = 1000 MB
1 TB = 1000 GB and so on.

However, our computers work on base 2 and for them:
1 MB = 1024 KB
1GB = 1024 MB
1 TB = 1024 GB
This difference in the method of computation is responsible for this “missing space.”

Here’s an example of a 16GB SanDisk pen drive.
From SanDisk manufacturer’s point of view, the 16GB will have 16*1000*1000*1000 = 16,000,000,000 bytes.

From a computer’s point of view, 16GB is actually
16*1024*1024*1024 = 17,179,869,184 bytes.

So, the SanDisk pen drive that promises to have 16 GB storage space will actually display 14.9GB.
17,179,869,184 – 16,000,000,000 = 1,179,869,184 bytes (1.1 GB) less storage space when connected to a computer.



Things aren’t so bad when you purchase small storage devices like pen drives, memory cards but with external hard disks.

Just look at the table below:


Take a close look at the box of your hard drive and you’ll see a disclaimer like this:



The Story of the Birth of PARAM – India’s First Supercomputer


In 1985, India wanted a supercomputer for weather forecasting as it was very important for our farmers and for our agriculture at large. Similarly, Indian Institute of Science aspired to have a powerful supercomputer for advanced education and research. At that time, only US had supercomputing capability and Cray was the pioneer of Supercomputers. Japan was trying to follow but was nowhere near, quite lacking in software capabilities. Cray supercomputer that we wanted was denied to us as US considered supercomputing as a strategic and dual-use technology as supercomputers could be used for Defence, Space, and Nuclear programs. When Mr. Rajeev Gandhi became the PM, he took-up the issue with the then US President Ronald Regan. With a lot of negotiations, US agreed but humiliating conditions for its use. Rajeev Gandhi then gave a call to Indian scientists to develop an indigenous supercomputer. The year was 1987. At that time Mr. KPP Nambiar was Secretary of Department of Electronics of Govt. of India and Mr. K. R. Narayanan was the Minister of State for Science and Technology. I was the Director of ER&DC, Trivandrum and Mr. Nambiar was the Chairman from 1980-87. Mr. Nambiar called me to take up the Supercomputing challenge. Earlier, I had taken up similar challenge to develop India’s first fully solid-state colour TV, components and launch of colour broadcast for Asiad at the exhortation of Mrs. Indira Gandhi. I was also given the responsibility of developing a modern security system at ER&DC for Mr. Rajeev Gandhi. So I was called upon to lead India’s national initiative in supercomputers. Rajiv Gandhi had asked me 3 questions:

1) “Can we do it? I said, “I have not seen a supercomputer as we have no access to supercomputer, I only have seen a picture of Cray!”

2) “How long will it take?”, he asked. I promptly replied, “Less than it took for us in trying to import Cray from US. And we could develop the whole technology in less than 3 years. And we could develop the whole technology in less than 3 years!” He smiled and then asked,

3) “How much money it would take?” I replied, “The whole effort, including building an institution, developing technology and delivering India’s first supercomputer of YMP capability would cost less than the cost of Cray YMP, including its site, installation and commissioning!! This immediately pleased the PM and the C-DAC mission was approved on the model of Sam Pitroda’s C-DOT.

We launched C-DAC in Pune on Gudhi Padwa of 1988. First prototype mode was ready in 1990, in spite of the fact that I could not recruit a single person for 6 months, including my secretary, due to bureaucratic hurdles! We called it Param, meaning ‘Supreme’ in Sanskrit. First nobody believed that what we developed was a Supercomputer, as it did not look like the Cray machine, including my computer scientist professors. Then I decided to take the Param prototype to a major international conference and exhibition of supercomputers, where it was demonstrated and benchmarked. And we came next to US and it was declared that India has developed a supercomputer. The following year, we built a full-fledged parallel supercomputer called Param 8000 with one gigaflop per second speed and the US Newspapers had published this news, “Denied supercomputer, Angry India does it!”

As told by Dr. Vijay Bhatkar to

Dr. Vijay Bhatkar is best known as the architect of India’s first supercomputer and as the founder Executive Director of C-DAC, India’s national initiative in supercomputing. He is credited with the creation of several national institutions, notably amongst them being C-DAC, ER&DC, IIITM-K, I2IT, ETH Research Lab, MKCL and India International Multiversity.

Ever wondered why airplane windows are always round or slightly curved?



Ever wondered why airplane windows are always round or slightly curved? Well actually they were not always round. In fact, till 1950’s they were rectangular in shape.

As the planes became more popular, planes needed to fly high, flying high meant less drag because the air density is lower in the upper atmosphere, and lesser drag meant less fuel is wasted. Flying high also meant lesser turbulence because the plane could fly above the turbulent lower atmosphere.

Certain design changes had to be incorporated to allow planes to fly higher. The cabin has to be pressurized to create a survivable environment for the passengers. Second, the cabin must be cylindrical in shape because cylinder can resist the new internal pressure. But one design flaw which was not corrected when the cabin pressurization was first introduced – the windows remained square. So, why is this a problem?

As a plane increases in altitude, the external atmospheric pressure lowers more than the internal cabin pressure. This causes a difference in the pressure in the inside and outside of the plane causing the plane to expand ever so slightly. When a material changes shape like this, stress is created in the material. As the material is stretched more and more, stress begins to rise. Eventually the stress can rise so high so that the material can break. And there are a lot of factors which can elevate this stress. One of them is the shape of material. In planes, the shape of windows has a huge effect on the level of stress. Let’s see how.

Stress will flow smoothly through material, but if an obstacle is placed in its path, it needs to change direction and this causes pressure to build in certain directions. This is called stress concentration.


Comparing square windows to oval windows, we can see that square windows provide a larger barrier to the smooth flow of stress which means that the stress builds in the sharp corners of windows.


This elevated square stress formed due to square windows actually caused two planes to fall apart in the air in 1953, killing 56 people. It took engineers some time to realize that it was due to the square shape of windows. Since then, airplane windows have always been oval or round in shape.


Dr. Yellapragada SubbaRow – He lived so that you could live longer



Dr. Yellapragada Subbarow was one of the most important biochemists and scientists of not only India but of the entire world in the 20th century. He led one of the most important medical researches in the USA during World War Two.

  1. He discovered the role of phosphocreatine and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as an energy source in the cell. This lead to the foundation of biochemistry and all the further discoveries in this field are directly or indirectly influenced by this.
  2. He developed methotrexate for the treatment of cancer. This, without a doubt, is the single most important drug for the treatment of innumerable cancers. He has literally saved millions of life through this drug.
  3. He discovered Diethylcarbamazine. This drug is the only good treatment available for filariasis or elephant foot, which if not treated, makes the life of the patient a living hell.
  4. Working under Subbarow’s guidance, Benjamin Duggar made his discovery of the world’s first tetracycline antibiotic, Aureomycin, in 1945. Aureo is the Latin word for Gold, meaning that it ushered the Golden Era of Antibiotics where millions of death will be prevented.

22 Interesting Facts about Diamonds




  1. With a hardness of ten on the Mohs scale, diamond is the hardest natural substance. Diamonds are so hard that the only tools that can be used to cut a diamond must be made from another diamond.
  2. The United States is the world’s leading consumer of gemstones. In 2014 it consumed about $22.5 billion in unset gem-quality stones. That was about 35% of the world’s gem diamond production.
  3. Diamonds were discovered in India at least 2400 years ago and India was the first commercial producer of diamonds. The country dominated commercial diamond production until South American discoveries in the 1730’s.
  4. The value of a diamond is based upon its carat weight, clarity, colour and the quality of its cut. Most diamonds are in a colour range that runs from clear to yellow to brown. Colourless receive the highest grade and are generally of highest value.
  5. A small number of natural diamonds fall outside of the typical white-yellow-brown colour range. They are pink, blue, purple, red, orange or any colour. Those of a pleasing hue are extremely valuable and are given the name “fancy” diamonds.
  6. As in other gemstones, colour variants in diamond can be caused by impurities, heat or irradiation. Nitrogen in the stone causes a yellow colour. Irradiation can produce greens. Irradiation then heating can produce almost any colour.
  7. Diamonds are a high-temperature, high- pressure minerals. They do not form naturally at Earth’s surface or at shallow depths. The conditions where they can form are in Earth’s mantle about 100 miles below the surface.
  8. Poly-morph means “many forms”. Diamond and graphite are poly-morphs. They are both made up of carbon but have different properties. This results from their different crystal structures and different types of bonds between carbon atoms.
  9. People have been able to manufacture diamonds since the 1950’s. At first the cost was very high. Now, over 100 tons of synthetic diamonds are produced every year. Most of these diamonds are used to make cutting tools and abrasives.
  10. The largest known diamond deposit is at Popigai Crater in Russia. There an asteroid impact provided enough heat and energy to convert carbon surface materials into diamond. The diamonds are of industrial quality.
  11. People have successfully made synthetic diamonds for use in fine jewellery. The stones are undistinguishable from natural diamonds, even when observed by experienced gemmologists. They can be identified only by laboratory tests.
  12. Most of the world’s most famous diamonds have been found at the Cullinan Diamond mine in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. An example is the 507-carat “Cullinan Heritage”, a Type IIA diamond of extreme quality and clarity.
  13. Canada’s first commercial gem-quality diamond mines delivered their first production in the late 1990’s. In the short years since, Canadian diamond mines have become some of the world’s leading producers.
  14. There is only one diamond mine in the world where anyone can be a miner. That mine is at Crater of Diamonds State Park in Arkansas. For a few dollars you can mine for a day and keep anything you find.
  15. Diamonds from space is a reality. They have been found in some meteorites and the impact of meteorites with Earth is thought to produce enough heat and pressure to transform carbon into diamonds.
  16. Many uncut diamonds have a geometric shape. These natural diamond crystals commonly are in the form of an octahedron. This shape is similar to two four-sided pyramids connected at their base to form a geometric solid with eight faces.
  17. Drilling oil and gas wells down through thousands of feet of rock requires a tough drill bit. Small diamonds are embedded into the cutting surfaces of these bits. The extremely hard diamonds wear away the rock as the drill bit is turned in the hole.
  18. Diamonds are used to make saw blades used to cut concrete, rock, brick and even gemstones. These are circular saws with a blade tipped with tiny particles of diamond. As the blade turns the diamonds saw through the concrete.
  19. Diamonds form at high pressure and that makes them stable in such an environment. When scientists need to place small objects under ultra-high pressure they often press them between two pieces of diamond known as “diamond anvils”.
  20. Diamonds have a simple composition. They are composed of carbon. Diamond is the only gemstone composed of just one element. Trace amounts of other elements exist in diamonds as impurities. These can give diamond a slight colour.
  21. The highest price ever paid for a rough diamond was $35.3 million. Chow Tai Fook, Hong Kong’s largest jewellery company, purchased the 507-carat “Cullinan Heritage” diamond in 2010.
  22. Although the United States is the largest consumer of gem diamonds it has almost no production. The only mine is a state park where tourists can pay a fee to look for diamonds. The park yields just a few hundred carats per year.


5 Facts about the Human Brain that will Blow Your Mind!


  1. The human brain contains roughly 100 billion neurons.
  2. Most computational neuroscientists tend to estimate human storage capacity somewhere between 10 terabytes and 100 terabytes, though the full spectrum of guesses ranges from 1 terabyte to 2.5 petabytes. (One terabyte is equal to about 1,000 gigabytes or about 1 million megabytes; a petabyte is about 1,000 terabytes.)
  3. One thing is certain: The notion that humans only use 10 percent of their brain is a myth—information may be stored in every part of the brain.
  4. Each neuron seems to have a “clock speed” on the order of kilohertz, which are a million times slower than gigahertz.
  5. The brain is remarkably energy-efficient, running on about 12 watts—the electricity it takes to light some high-efficiency light bulbs.

20 Fascinating YouTube Facts that Will Surprise You. No. 17 is Called Business Vision!

  1. YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steven Chen, and Jawed Karim, former employees of PayPal, an online commerce website. They registered the domain name in February 2005. It was officially launched in December of that year.
  2. In October 2006, Google bought YouTube for $1.65 billion in stocks, just18 months after YouTube’s creation. Karim received $66 million in Google stock, Chen received $310 million, and Hurley received $334 million.
  3. The first month after its creation, YouTube had 3 million visitors. The number of visitors tripled by the third month (February 2006), and then tripled again by July to 30 million visitors. By the end of the site’s first year, the number of visitors reached over 38 million.
  4. YouTube is the second largest search engine after Google (bigger than Bing, Yahoo!, and Ask combined).
  5. YouTube’s viewers are approximately 44% female and 56% male. Most viewers are 12-17 years old.
  6. In 2007, it was estimated that YouTube used as much bandwidth as the entire Internet did in 2000.
  7. The name “YouTube” and its motto “Broadcast Yourself” reflect the founders’ hope that anyone could use the site freely.
  8. YouTube has become such a cultural phenomenon that a college course was devoted to it. In 2007, Pitzer College in California offered a course called “Learning from YouTube.” The teacher wanted students to think about YouTube’s place in society.
  9. In May 2008, L.A. police arrested Cyrus Yazdini for vandalism. He had published many of his graffiti adventures on YouTube with a rap soundtrack. His YouTube publications helped police find and arrest him.
  10. YouTube broadcasts about 1/3 of the U.S.’s multimedia entertainment.
  11. The very first video-sharing Website was a page on, which was started in 1997. However, because technology at the time was not good enough for sending and watching videos over the Internet, it soon went out of business.
  12. In September 2005, Brazilian soccer star Ronaldinho’s Nike ad “Touch of gold” became the first YouTube video to be viewed 1 million times.
  13. As of 2010, it would take 1,700 years to watch every YouTube video.
  14. In 2007, British Prime leader Tony Blair became the first world leader with a YouTube channel.
  15. While tools such as Audio ID and Video ID (programs that help identify copyrighted material) and agreements with industry giants such as SONY have helped address YouTube’s longstanding issues with copyright infringement, content appropriateness continues to be YouTube’s main criticism.
  16. In 2007, YouTube cofounder Hurley told BBC News that one of the aims of YouTube is to entertain, inform, and empower the world through video.
  17. In 2006, when Google bought YouTube, YouTube was losing money at a rate of $500,000 a month despite its immense popularity. Google, however, saw its immense advertising potential.
  18. In 2013, You Tube had more than 72 hours of video uploaded per minute—or over a decade of content every day.
  19. Over 4 billion hours of video (over 450,000 years’ worth) are viewed each month on YouTube.
  20. Every second there are 46,296 YouTube videos being viewed all around the world.



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